Alcoa, Inc. engages in the lightweight metals engineering and manufacturing. Its products are used worldwide in aircraft, automobiles, commercial transportation, packaging, oil and gas, defense, and industrial applications. It operates through the following segments: Alumina, Primary Metals, Global Rolled Products and Engineered Products and Solutions, and Transportation and Construction Solutions. The Alumina segment consists of Alcoa's upstream operations and consists of the company's worldwide refinery system, including the mining of bauxite, which is then refined into alumina. Alumina is mainly sold directly to internal and external smelter customers worldwide through agents, alumina traders, and distributors. The Primary Metals segment comprises of Alcoa's upstream operations and consists of the company's worldwide smelter system. Primary Metals receives alumina, mostly from the Alumina segment, and produces primary aluminum used by Alcoa's fabricating businesses, as well as sold to external customers, aluminum traders, and commodity markets. The Global Rolled Products segment is involved in the production and sale of aluminum plate, sheet and foil. It includes rigid container sheet, which is sold directly to customers in the packaging and consumer market. The segment also includes sheet and plate used in the transportation, building and construction and distribution markets. The Engineered Products and Solutions segment is involved in the production and sale of titanium, aluminum and super alloy investment castings, hard alloy extrusions, forgings and fasteners, aluminum wheels, integrated aluminum structural systems and architectural extrusions. These products serve the aerospace, automotive, building and construction, commercial transportation, power generation and defense markets. The Transportation and Construction Solutions segment engages in downstream operations and produces products that are used mostly in the nonresidential building and construction and commercial transportation end markets. The company was founded by Charles Martin Hall on October 1, 1888 and is headquartered in New York, NY.